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Detection by RT-PCR and genetic characterization of canine distemper virus from vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs in Argentina

Calderon, M.G., Remorini, P., Periolo, O., Iglesias, M., Mattion, N., La Torre, J.
Veterinary microbiology 2007 v.125 no.3-4 pp. 341-349
phylogeny, vaccination, strains, Canine morbillivirus, pathotypes, sequence analysis, disease detection, dogs, pathogen identification, pathogenicity, canine distemper, hemagglutinins, molecular epidemiology, microbial genetics, live vaccines, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rapid methods, genetic variation, RNA, nucleocapsid proteins, Argentina
RT-PCR was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) RNA in clotted blood from Argentine domestic dogs. The NP gene was detected in 73 out of 99 blood samples analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of these gene fragments showed 100% identity with the sequence of other wild-type and vaccine strains. A fragment of the hemagglutinin gene was amplified from 24 (32.9%) of the NP-RNA-positive clinical specimens. These H fragments were further analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. A single NdeI site was detected in all 24 wild-type strains but was absent in the vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial hemagglutinin amino acid sequences showed close clustering for local strains, clearly distinct from vaccine strains and other wild-type foreign CDV strains. One of the local strains, Arg 23, branched out of the root of the Argentine clade, close to the European strains, suggesting that two different pathogenic CDV genotypes are currently circulating in Argentina, one of them clearly predominant.