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Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci from wild boars (Sus scrofa)

Poeta, P., Costa, D., Igrejas, G., Rodrigues, J., Torres, C.
Veterinary microbiology 2007 v.125 no.3-4 pp. 368-374
enteropathogens, strains, drug resistance, phenotype, swine diseases, feces, risk assessment, genotype, bacterial infections, defense mechanisms, epidemiological studies, Enterococcus, wildlife diseases, Sus scrofa, pathogen identification, wild boars, microbial genetics, disease reservoirs, disease prevalence, disease transmission, digestive system diseases, anti-infective agents, Portugal
The objective was to study the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and the mechanisms implicated in faecal enterococci of wild boars in Portugal. One hundred and thirty-four enterococci (67 E. faecium, 54 E. hirae, 2 E. faecalis, 2 E. durans and 9 Enterococcus spp.) were recovered from 67 wild boars (two isolates/sample), and were further analysed. High percentages of resistance were detected for erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin (48.5%, 44.8%, and 17.9%, respectively), and lower values were observed for high-level-kanamycin, -streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin resistance (9%, 6.7%, 4.5%, and 3.7%, respectively). No isolates showed vancomycin or high-level-gentamicin resistance. The erm(B), tet(M), aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6)-I genes were demonstrated in all erythromycin-, tetracycline-, kanamycin-, and streptomycin-resistant isolates, respectively. Specific genes of Tn916/Tn1545 and Tn5397 transposons were detected in 78% and 47% of our tet(M)-positive enterococci, respectively. The tet(S) and tet(K) genes were detected in one isolate of E. faecium and E. hirae, respectively. Three E. faecium isolates showed quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance and the vat(E) gene was found in all of them showing the erm(B)-vat(E) linkage. Four E. faecium isolates showed ampicillin-resistance and all of them presented seven amino acid substitutions in PBP5 protein (461Q leads to K, 470H leads to Q, 485M leads to A, 496N leads to K, 499Aleads to T, 525E leads to D, and 629E leads to V), in relation with the reference one; a serine insertion at 466' position was found in three of the isolates. Faecal enterococci from wild boars harbour a variety of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes and resistant bacteria that could eventually be transmitted to other animals or even to humans.