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Characterization of Volatile Aroma Compounds in Cooked Black Rice

Yang, D.S., Lee, K.S., Jeong, O.Y., Kim, K.J., Kays, S.J.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2008 v.56 no.1 pp. 235-240
rice, gas chromatography, olfactometry, guaiacol, odor compounds, food composition, mass spectrometry, odors, cooking, aldehydes
Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), an aromatic specialty rice popular in Asia, has a unique flavor, the volatile chemistry of which has not been reported. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles of cooked black rice and to characterize the odor-active compounds. Thirty-five volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a dynamic headspace system with Tenax trapping. Aldehydes and aromatics were quantitatively in the greatest abundance, accounting for 80.1% of total relative concentration of volatiles. The concentration of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) was high, exceeded only by hexanal, nonanal, and 2-pentylfuran. A total of 25 odor-active compounds, determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry, were applied to principal component analysis, demonstrating significant differences between a black and a traditional white rice cultivar in terms of aroma and explaining 93.0% of the total variation. 2-AP, guaiacol, indole, and p-xylene largely influenced the difference between the aroma in cooked black and white rice. 2-AP and guaiacol were major contributors to the unique character of black rice based on odor thresholds, relative concentrations, and olfactometry.