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Protective effect of 6-paradol in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

Author:
Rafeeq, Misbahuddin, Murad, Hussam Aly Sayed, Abdallah, Hossam Mohammed, El-Halawany, Ali M.
Source:
BMC complementary medicine and therapies 2021 v.21 no.1 pp. 28
ISSN:
2662-7671
Subject:
Aframomum melegueta, acetic acid, alternative medicine, atrophy, blood serum, chemotaxis, colon, cytotoxicity, dose response, edema, food composition, glutathione, hemorrhage, histopathology, immune response, inflammation, interleukin-6, intestinal microorganisms, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, necrosis, neoplasms, protective effect, proteinases, reactive oxygen species, statistical analysis, sulfasalazine, ulcerative colitis
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is a gut inflammatory disorder due to altered immune response to gut microbiome, with interplay of environmental and genetic factors. TNF-α activates inflammatory response through a cascade of immune responses, augmenting pro-inflammatory mediators and proteases, activating chemotaxis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, leading to ulceration and haemorrhage through cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. 6-Paradol, a dietary component in several plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Current study evaluates the effect of 6-paradol in amelioration of ulcerative colitis in rats for the first time. METHODS: 6-Paradol (95% purity) was obtained from seeds of Aframomum melegueta. Rats were divided randomly into six groups (n = 8). Group one was administered normal saline; group two was treated with the vehicle only; group three, sulfasalazine 500 mg/kg; and groups four, five, and six, were given 6-paradol (50, 100, 200, respectively) mg/kg orally through gastric gavage for 7 days. Colitis was induced on 4th day by intrarectal administration of 2 ml acetic acid (3%), approximately 3 cm from anal verge. On 8th day, rats were sacrificed, and distal one-third of the colon extending proximally up to 4 cm from anal orifice was taken for biochemical and gross examination. Two centimetres of injured mucosal portion was taken for histopathological investigations. SPSS (ver.26) was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Colonic and serum glutathione (GSH) levels decreased, while colonic and serum malondialdehyde (MDA), colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and colon weight to length ratio were increased significantly in the colitis untreated group compared to normal control. Treatment with 6-paradol considerably improved all these parameters, especially at a dose of 200 mg/kg (p < 0.001), revealing non-significant differences with sulfasalazine 500 mg/kg and normal control (p = 0.998). Sulfasalazine and 6-paradol in a dose dependent manner also markedly reversed mucosal oedema, atrophy and inflammation, cryptic damage, haemorrhage, and ulceration. There were non-significant differences between low and medium doses and between medium and high doses of 6-paradol for IL-6 and serum MDA levels. CONCLUSION: 6-Paradol demonstrated protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis, probably by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions.
Agid:
7235340