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The emergence, evolution and spread of infectious bronchitis virus genotype GI-23

Author:
Houta, Mohamed H., Hassan, Kareem E., El-Sawah, Azza A., Elkady, Magdy F., Kilany, Walid H., Ali, Ahmed, Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S.
Source:
Archives of virology 2021 v.166 no.1 pp. 9-26
ISSN:
0304-8608
Subject:
Infectious bronchitis virus, birds, classification, enzootic diseases, evolution, genetic variation, genotype, infectious bronchitis, poultry industry, prevalence, strains, vaccination, vaccines, virology, Asia, Europe, Middle East, Northern Africa
Abstract:
Avian infectious bronchitis is a contagious viral disease, caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), that leads to severe losses in the poultry industry all over the world. Since the 1950s, IBV has circulated in the Middle East and North Africa, and no tangible evidence has shown any effects of measures taken to control its spread or evolution. Furthermore, new IBV variants are continually discovered. Although several genetic studies on IBV have been conducted, many IBV strains from this region have either been misclassified or remain unclassified. The genotype 23 (GI-23) variant emerged and has prevailed in the Middle East by continuously evolving through inter- and/or intra-genotypic recombination. The GI-23 genotype is currently enzootic throughout Europe and Asia. Although many studies of protection against the circulating strains have been conducted, they have not been standardized according to regulatory requirements. In this review, we provide an overview of the evolution and genetic diversity of IBV genotypes and a genetic classification of IBV strains, with a focus on the GI-23 genotype. The high prevalence of IBV GI-23 strains necessitates the adoption of vaccination schemes using GI-23-based vaccines.
Agid:
7240349