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Changes of Soybean Quality during Storage As Related to Soymilk and Tofu Making

Kong, F., Chang, S.K.C., Liu, Z., Wilson, L.A.
Journal of food science 2008 v.73 no.3 pp. S134
water content, soymilk, tofu, food quality, food processing, food storage, temporal variation, relative humidity, storage temperature, storage conditions, genotype, Glycine max, cultivars, color, soluble solids, texture, temperature
Soybeans are stored and transported under various humidity and temperature conditions. Soymilk and tofu are two of the most important foods made from whole soybeans. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of storage conditions on soybean quality as related to soymilk and tofu-making properties. Soybeans of 3 different genotypes (Proto, IA2032, and Vinton 81) were stored in varying conditions: temperature ranging from 4 to 50 °C, relative humidity from 55% to 80%, initial moisture content from 6% to14%, and storage time up to 15 mo depending upon storage conditions. The effects of different storage conditions on soybean color, solids and protein extractability, soymilk pH, tofu yield, tofu solids and protein contents, tofu color, and texture were investigated. While no significant changes occurred for the soybeans stored at 4 °C, the soybeans stored at high temperatures (30 to 50 °C) exhibited significant quality loss (P < 0.05). The degradation of soybean lightness (Hunter L), color difference (ΔE), and solid extractability exhibited a linear relationship with time. Soak weight decreased at high temperature and relative humidity, but increased at mild storage conditions. Several combinations of storage conditions at temperatures exceeding 30 °C produced a drastic loss in tofu yield. Storage also affected the tofu making process by reducing optimum mixing time to produce the highest tofu yield. Varietal difference in soybean storability was observed. The results provided useful information for the soybean processing industry to store soybeans using the optimal storage conditions and to estimate soybean quality after storage.