U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Efficient Gene Stacking in Rice Using the GAANTRY System

Leyla T. Hathwaik, James Horstman, James G. Thomson, Roger Thilmony
Rice 2021 v.14 no.1 pp. 17
Agrobacterium, Arabidopsis, breeding, genetic engineering, genetically modified organisms, grain crops, grain quality, plasmids, potatoes, recombinases, rice, technology, transfer DNA, transgenes, virulence
Genetic engineering of rice provides a means for improving rice grain quality and yield, and the introduction and expression of multiple genes can produce new traits that would otherwise be difficult to obtain through conventional breeding. GAANTRY (Gene Assembly in Agrobacterium by Nucleic acid Transfer using Recombinase technologY) was previously shown to be a precise and robust system to stably stack ten genes (28 kilobases (kb)) within an Agrobacterium virulence plasmid Transfer-DNA (T-DNA) and obtain high-quality Arabidopsis and potato transgenic events. To determine whether the GAANTRY system can be used to engineer a monocotyledonous crop, two new T-DNA constructs, carrying five (16.9 kb) or eleven (37.4 kb) cargo sequences were assembled and transformed into rice. Characterization of 53 independent transgenic events demonstrated that more than 50% of the plants carried all of the desired cargo sequences and exhibited the introduced traits. Additionally, more than 18% of the lines were high-quality events containing a single copy of the introduced transgenes and were free of sequences from outside of the T-DNA. Therefore, GAANTRY provides a simple, precise and versatile tool for transgene stacking in rice and potentially other cereal grain crops.