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Interaction and effects of graded levels of dietary phytic acid on the moulting performance, whole body mineral composition and availability on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Rasid, R., Brown, J.H., Pratoomyot, J., Monroig, O., Shinn, A.P.
Aquaculture 2021 v.537 pp. 736466
Macrobrachium rosenbergii, aquaculture, aquaculture feeds, calcium, copper, diet, economic plants, fish meal, growth performance, juveniles, mineral content, molting, muscles, nutrient utilization, phosphorus, phytic acid, potassium, sodium, somatic cells, zinc
The presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid (PA) in a number of potentially useful plant ingredients has been a major impediment to their use as replacements for fishmeal in aquafeeds. This study builds on an earlier studying investigating the growth performance and nutrient utilisation in the juvenile Malaysian giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii exploring the effects and interactions of dietary PA with minerals on growth (somatic tissue). Additionally, the study set out to determine the changes in whole-body mineral composition and also on muscle tissues and the carapace, when different levels of PA were included within the diet. The hypothesis under test was that PA, as a mineral-binding agent by chelating di- and trivalent cations inhibits mineral availability. To explore this, effects of graded levels of PA (i.e. 0.26–control, 6.48, 11.28, 16.53, 21.45 and 26.16 g PA kg⁻¹) on the moult frequency and mineral availability in juvenile M. rosenbergii (mean initial carapace length of 6.22 ± 0.52 mm; mean initial weight of 0.20 ± 0.01 g; n = 20 per replicate) fed over a period of 140 days were determined. The levels of PA assessed in this feed trial had no major detrimental effects on moult frequency. Negative effects (p < 0.05) of high PA levels (i.e. 21.45–26.16 g PA kg⁻¹), however, were found on the whole-body phosphorus concentration. An increasing trend, although not significantly so, was recorded for the calcium content in the whole-body and carapace with increasing PA inclusion. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of zinc, copper, potassium and sodium in the carapace, particularly in the prawns fed the diet containing 11.28 g PA kg⁻¹, which suggests that the specific minerals were either selectively utilised or retained in the carapace. These changes may have a serious impairment hence caution should be exercised to ensure that the anti-nutritive effects of PA are minimised.