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Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry (Morus nigra L.) in rats
- Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto, Genovese, Maria Inés, Lajolo, Franco Maria
- Nutrition research 2008 v.28 no.3 pp. 198-207
- Morus nigra, wild plants, fruits (food), mulberries, mature plants, fruit extracts, chemical constituents of plants, cyanidin, glucosides, rutin, antioxidants, antioxidant activity, free radicals, free radical scavengers, glycosylation, rats, animal models, nutrient intake, nutrient availability, intestinal absorption, blood serum, solid phase extraction, rumen fermentation, pharmacokinetics
- The mechanism of uptake of anthocyanins (as well as the type) from food in the intestine is not clear. Anthocyanin-rich extract from wild mulberry, composed of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) (19%), was orally administered to Wistar rats, and their concentrations were determined in plasma, kidney, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The 2 glycosylated forms showed maximum concentration at 15 minutes after oral administration, both in plasma and kidney. The cyanidin-3-glucoside and cy-3-rut were found in plasma as glucuronides, as sulfates of cyanidin, and as unchanged forms. The area under the curve of concentration vs time (AUC₀₋₈h) was 2.76 ± 0.88 μg hour/mL and 9.74 ± 0.75 μg hour/g for plasma and kidney, respectively. In spite of the low absorption, the increase in plasma anthocyanin level resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant capacity (P < .05). In the GI tract (stomach and small and large intestines), cyanidin glycosides were found unchanged, but a low amount of the aglycone form was present. Anthocyanin glycosides were no longer detected in the GI tract after 8 hours of administration. In vitro fermentation showed that the 2 cyanidin glycosides were totally metabolized by the rat colonic microflora, explaining their disappearance. In addition, the 2 products of their degradation, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid, were not detected in plasma and probably do not influence plasma antioxidant capacity. As found by the everted sac model, anthocyanins were transported across the enterocyte by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter.