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Assessment of Cadmium Distribution in Some Australian Krasnozems by Sequential Extraction

Butt, David, Dowling, Kim, Vinden, Peter
Water, air, and soil pollution 2008 v.190 no.1-4 pp. 157-169
agricultural soils, potatoes, acid soils, soil pollution, phosphorus fertilizers, fertilizer application, history, cadmium, metals, spatial distribution, extraction, soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, soil texture, bioavailability, adsorption, iron oxides, magnesium oxide, soil organic matter, Victoria (Australia)
A sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the influence of long-term phosphate fertilization on the distribution of cadmium throughout the major components of krasnozemic soils in the potato growing district located to the East of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. The soil fractions investigated consisted of the water soluble, exchangeable, weakly bound to metal oxides, strongly bound to metal oxides, bound to organic material and residual. Other soil parameters, such as pHH₂O, pHCaCl₂, electrolytical conductivity and total organic material were investigated. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn in each soil fraction were also measured. The total concentration of cadmium in the farmed soils had increased from the background level of 100.5 μg/kg to an average of 210 μg/kg. The proportion of cadmium available or potentially available for plant uptake was very low. On average, 89% of the cadmium in the farmed soils had been adsorbed by amorphous metal oxides and organic material, or was associated with silicates, and is therefore unavailable for plant uptake. The metal oxides adsorbed the highest proportion of cadmium.