U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Main content area

Research Note: An overview on distribution of fowl adenoviruses

Kiss, I., Homonnay, Z.G., Mató, T., Bányai, K., Palya, V.
Poultry science 2021 v.100 no.5 pp. 101052
Adenoviridae, birds, databases, genes, geographical distribution, gizzard, hepatitis, infectious bronchitis, mixed infection, phylogeny
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), detected during routine diagnostic investigations from 38 countries (5 continents) over a decade, were partially sequenced and grouped by phylogenetic analysis. The partial polymerase gene nucleotide sequences of the 365 fowl adenovirus isolates resulted in the following species distribution: 11% FAdV-A; 3% FAdV-B; 2% FAdV-C; 34% FAdV-D; and 50% FAdV-E. Noticeably, only 79 of the detected strains could be associated with adenovirus-specific pathologic conditions: 62 (79%) with inclusion body hepatitis; 9 (11%) with gizzard erosion; and 8 (10%) with hepatitis hydropericardium syndrome. The remainder of the FAdV strains was detected as concomitant infection from other disease conditions almost exclusively in boilers of 27 to 42 d of age: the majority of them was FAdV-E followed by FAdV-D, and to a lesser extent of FAdV-A, B, and C, the latter ones have not been associated with any of the established adenovirus-caused syndromes in our collection. The highest ratio of coinfections was observed for FAdV-B (62%), while it was about 30% for the rest of the FAdV species. The most frequent coinfection, in connection with all FAdV species, was with the avian infectious bronchitis virus. The presented database will serve as the basis for comparative whole genome and cross-neutralization analysis of selected FAdV isolates.