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Parity of female goats does not influence their estrous and ovulatory responses to the male effect

Luna-Orozco, J.R., Fernández, I.G., Gelez, H., Delgadillo, J.A.
Animal reproduction science 2008 v.106 no.3-4 pp. 352-360
parity (reproduction), anovulation, goats, mating behavior, male effect, female fertility, anestrus, bucks, photoperiod, estrus, females, photoperiodism
The objective of the present study was to determine whether parity is a factor that influences the estrous and ovulatory responses of female goats when they are stimulated by males that show increased sexual activity. To stimulate sexual activity, four adult male goats were subjected to photoperiodic treatment for 2.5 months comprising long days, with the treatment commencing on 1 November. On 14 April at 1900h, a group of multiparous females (n =21) and a group of 16 months-old nulliparous females (n =19) were exposed to four bucks (two per group) for 15 days. Throughout the study period, the estrous behavior of these female goats was detected twice on a daily basis. Ovulations of the female goats were determined by ecography on days 7 and 18 after exposure to males. The sexual behavior of males was recorded twice every day from 0800 to 0900h and from 1730 to 1830h during the first 4 days after introduction in the pen of females. The total cumulative proportion of multiparous females that had ovulations (100%) and displayed estrous behavior (100%) during the 15 days of exposure to males did not differ (P >0.05) from that of nulliparous females (100% and 95%, respectively). The interval between introduction of males and onset of estrous behavior did not differ (P >0.05) between multiparous (1.9±0.1 days) and nulliparous (1.7±0.2 days) females. The proportion of females displaying a short estrous cycle was greater (P <0.05) in multiparous (13/21, 62%) than in nulliparous (5/19, 26%) females. Duration of these shorter than typical estrous cycles did not differ (P >0.05) between groups (multiparous: 5.2±0.3 days, nulliparous: 4.5±0.1 days). The number of anogenital sniffings was greater (P <0.001) in males exposed to nulliparous than in those exposed to multiparous females. In contrast, the number of mounting attempts was greater (P <0.01) in males that were introduced to multiparous than in those that were introduced to nulliparous does. The number of flehmen, nudging, self-marking with urine, and mounts was not different (P >0.05) between males that were in contact with multiparous and nulliparous females. These results indicate that regardless of parity, female goats respond to male introduction if they are stimulated by males that were previously exposed to artificial long days to increase their sexual behavior.