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Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf, stem and fruit fraction extracts in vitro
- Kubola, Jittawan, Siriamornpun, Sirithon
- Food chemistry 2008 v.110 no.4 pp. 881-890
- phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, Momordica charantia, leaves, stems, plant extracts, fruit extracts, in vitro studies, free radical scavengers, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, tannins, coumaric acids, ferulic acid, benzoic acid, functional foods
- Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) has long been regarded as a food and medicinal plant. We investigated the antioxidant activity of the water extract of leaf, stem and fruit fractions by several in vitro systems of assay, namely DPPH radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and total antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Identification of phenolic compounds was achieved using HPLC with the UV-diode array detection. The extracts of different fractions were found to have different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The leaf extract showed the highest value of antioxidant activity, based on DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, while the green fruit extract showed the highest value of antioxidant activity, based on hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay and total antioxidant capacity. The predominant phenolic compounds were gallic acid, followed by caffeic acid and catechin. The present study demonstrated that the water extract fractions of bitter gourd have different responses with different antioxidant methods. Total phenol content was shown to provide the highest association with FRAP assay in this present study (R ² = 0.948).