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Authentication of Farmed and Wild Turbot (Psetta maxima) by Fatty Acid and Isotopic Analyses Combined with Chemometrics

Busetto, M.L., Moretti, V.M., Moreno-Rojas, J.M., Caprino, F., Giani, I., Malandra, R., Bellagamba, F., Guillou, C.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2008 v.56 no.8 pp. 2742-2750
fish farms, turbot, fish products, wild animals, fish culture, fatty acid composition, stable isotopes, food composition, carbon, nitrogen, multivariate analysis, geographical variation, provenance, mass spectrometry, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain
Fatty acid composition and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) were determined in muscle tissue of turbot (Psetta maxima). The multivariate analysis of the data was performed to evaluate their utility in discriminating wild and farmed fish. Wild (n = 30) and farmed (n = 30) turbot of different geographical origins (Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain) were sampled from March 2006 to February 2007. The application of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to analytical data demonstrated the combination of fatty acids and isotopic measurements to be a promising method to discriminate between wild and farmed fish and between wild fish of different geographical origin. In particular, IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) alone did not permit us to separate completely farmed from wild samples, resulting in some overlaps between Danish wild and Spanish farmed turbot. On the other hand, fatty acids alone differentiated between farmed and wild samples by 18:2n-6 but were not able to distinguish between the two groups of wild turbot. When applying LDA isotope ratios, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 20:4n-6 fatty acids were decisive to distinguish farmed from wild turbot of different geographical origin, while δ15N, 18:2n-6, and 20:1n-11 were chosen to classify wild samples from different fishing zones. In both cases, 18:2n-6 and δ15N were determinant for classification purposes. We would like to emphasize that IRMS produces rapid results and could be the most promising technique to distinguish wild fish of different origin. Similarly, fatty acid composition could be used to easily distinguish farmed from wild samples.