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Acrylamide-induced peripheral neuropathy: manifestations, mechanisms, and potential treatment modalities
- May Bin-Jumah, Abdel-Fattah M. Abdel-Fattah, Essa M. Saied, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim
- Environmental science and pollution research 2021 v.28 no.11 pp. 13031-13046
- acrylamides, axonal transport, carcinogens, cerebellum, hindlimbs, humans, manufacturing, neurotoxicity, non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, pathogenesis, peripheral nervous system diseases, phytochemicals, pollution, polymers, research, skeletal muscle, synaptic transmission, tyrosine, weight loss
- Acrylamide is a chemical monomer; its polymer compounds are used in the manufacture of plastic, papers, adhesive tapes, dyes, and food packaging. Lately, scientists found that cooking (mainly roasting, baking, and frying) yields acrylamide. In addition to fried/baked potatoes, coffee and bakery products still contain substantial amounts of acrylamide. Acrylamide has toxic effects on different body systems include genitourinary, reproductive, nervous system, along with being a carcinogenic substance. The neurotoxicity of acrylamide includes central and peripheral neuropathy. In humans, the clinical manifestations include sensory or motor peripheral neuropathy, drowsiness, or cerebellar ataxia. Likewise, it presents with skeletal muscle weakness, hindlimb dysfunction, ataxia, and weight loss in animals. The suggested mechanisms for acrylamide neurotoxicity include direct inhibition of neurotransmission, cellular changes, inhibition of key cellular enzymes, and bonding of kinesin-based fast axonal transport. Moreover, it is suggested that acrylamide’s molecular effect on SNARE core kinetics is carried out through the adduction of NSF and/or SNARE proteins. Lately, scientists showed disruption of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) cell signaling pathways in human differentiating neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, exposed to acrylamide. Different treatment modalities have been revealed to shield against or hasten recovery from acrylamide-induced neuropathy in preclinical studies, including phytochemical, biological, and vitamin-based compounds. Still, additional studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis and to identify the best treatment modality.