U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Accumulation of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) irrigated with wastewater: a systematic review and meta-analysis and probabilistic health risk assessment [Erratum: March 2021, v.28(11), p.13083]

Ali Atamaleki, Ahmadreza Yazdanbakhsh, Sevda Fallah, Mohsen Hesami, Aliasghar Neshat, Yadolah Fakhri
Environmental science and pollution research 2021 v.28 no.11 pp. 13072-13082
Coriandrum sativum, Lactuca sativa, adults, agricultural industry, carcinogenicity, health effects assessments, human food chain, lettuce, meta-analysis, pollution, research, risk, systematic review, wastewater, water reuse, water shortages, China, France, Iran, Kenya, Nigeria
Water shortage and stress around the world lead to increasing wastewater reuse for the agricultural sector. In addition to its benefits, it can be a way to transfer pollutants such as potentially harmful elements (PHEs) to the human food chain. Many studies have been conducted for this purpose on various vegetables; however, no comprehensive study has been performed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). In this respect, the study was aimed to meta-analyze the PHEs concentration in the edible part of lettuce and coriander vegetables irrigated by wastewater. Carcinogenic risk (CR) and noncarcinogenic risk (non-CR) assessments were also done for consumers. After reviewing 32 included articles (41 studies), the rank order of the PHEs in lettuce was obtained as Fe (194.76 mg/kg) > Zn (133.47 mg/kg) > Cu (55.70 mg/kg) > Ni (26.96 mg/kg) > Pb (12.80 mg/kg) > Cr (9.68 mg/kg) Cd (8.24 mg/kg) > As (1.13 mg/kg) and for coriander Fe (1056 mg/kg) > Zn (79.80 mg/kg) > Cr (28.34 mg/kg) > Ni (24.71 mg/kg) > Cu (17.46 mg/kg) > Pb (13.23 mg/kg) > Cd (2.23 mg/kg). Total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) for adults in all countries except UAE, France, and Kenya and for children all countries except Kenya was more than 1 value. The carcinogenic risk for adult groups in Nigeria, France, China, and Iran countries was not acceptable (CR > 1E-4). As a consequence, it can be noted that wastewater reuse in the agriculture sector can endanger the health of consumers.