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Purple Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Polyacetylenes Decrease Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Macrophage and Endothelial Cells
- Metzger, B.T., Barnes, D.M., Reed, J.D.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2008 v.56 no.10 pp. 3554-3560
- carrots, polyacetylenes, anthocyanins, anti-inflammatory activity, bioactive properties, lipopolysaccharides, macrophages, endothelial cells, cultured cells, plant extracts, dosage, dose response, nitric oxide, messenger RNA, protein synthesis, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide synthase, cytotoxicity
- Carrots (Daucus carota L.) contain phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolics, polyacetylenes, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes. Purple carrots also contain anthocyanins. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and phytochemicals from purple carrots was investigated by determining attenuation of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A bioactive chromatographic fraction (Sephadex LH-20) reduced LPS inflammatory response. There was a dose-dependent reduction in nitric oxide production and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) and iNOS in macrophage cells. Protein secretions of IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced 77 and 66% in porcine aortic endothelial cells treated with 6.6 and 13.3 μg/mL of the LH-20 fraction, respectively. Preparative liquid chromatography resulted in a bioactive subfraction enriched in the polyacetylene compounds falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate, and falcarinol. The polyacetylenes were isolated and reduced nitric oxide production in macrophage cells by as much as 65% without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that polyacetylenes, not anthocyanins, in purple carrots are responsible for anti-inflammatory bioactivity.