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Synthetic Scaffold Systems for Increasing the Efficiency of Metabolic Pathways in Microorganisms

Almando Geraldi, Fatiha Khairunnisa, Nadya Farah, Le Minh Bui, Ziaur Rahman
Biology 2021 v.10 no.3 pp. -
Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, toxicity
Microbes have been the preferred hosts for producing high-value chemicals from cheap raw materials. However, metabolic flux imbalance, the presence of competing pathways, and toxic intermediates often lead to low production efficiency. The spatial organization of the substrates, intermediates, and enzymes is critical to ensuring efficient metabolic activity by microorganisms. One of the most common approaches for bringing the key components of biosynthetic pathways together is through molecular scaffolds, which involves the clustering of pathway enzymes on engineered molecules via different interacting mechanisms. In particular, synthetic scaffold systems have been applied to improve the efficiency of various heterologous and synthetic pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with varying degrees of success. Herein, we review the recent developments and applications of protein-based and nucleic acid-based scaffold systems and discuss current challenges and future directions in the use of such approaches.