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Distribution and molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus in southern China

Lian, Jiamin, Wang, Zhanxin, Xu, Zhouyi, Chen, Tong, Shao, Guanming, Zhang, Xinheng, Qin, Jianping, Xie, Qingmei, Lin, Wencheng
Poultry science 2021 v.100 no.7 pp. 101169
Infectious bronchitis virus, amino acids, genes, genetic analysis, genotype, monitoring, pathogenicity, poultry industry, serotypes, China
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is causing considerable economic losses in the world poultry industry. The main difficulty of prevention and control of IB disease is the numerous genotypes and serotypes. The genetic analysis of IBV was mainly based on the S1 gene which played an important role in infectivity. In the study, One hundred and thirty-nine strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus were isolated from chickens showing signs of disease in southern China during the period from April 2019 to March 2020. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the isolated field strains were compared to 22 published references. Nucleotide homologies ranged from 64.5% to 100% and amino acid homologies ranging from 70% to 99.8%. Six genotype IBV strains were co-circulating in southern China. QX-type was still the most dominant genotype. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of S1 gene revealed that the substitutions, insertions and deletions are widely among isolated strains. Recombination analysis showed that there is a large number of recombinant strains amongst these isolates, forming new sub branches, subtypes and variants. Therefore, long-term continuing surveillance is necessary for IBV prevention and control.