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Quantification of glycoproteins by nuclear magnetic resonance associated with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 1 diabetes

Tonet Serés-Noriega, Marga Giménez, Verónica Perea, Jesús Blanco, Irene Vinagre, Adriana Pané, Sabina Ruiz, Monserrat Cofán, Alex Mesa, Enric Esmatjes, Ignacio Conget, Emilio Ortega, Antonio J. Amor
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases 2021 v.31 no.7 pp. 2099-2108
C-reactive protein, age, atherosclerosis, biomarkers, drugs, evolution, glycoproteins, height, inflammation, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, males, metabolism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nutrition, risk factors, thickness, ultrasonography, width
Glycoproteins play a key role in inflammatory and cardiometabolic processes. Their implication in atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unknown. We assessed the relationships between classic inflammatory markers, glycoproteins measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR), and preclinical atherosclerosis in these patients.We selected patients with T1D, without cardiovascular disease (CVD), with: age ≥40 years, nephropathy (micro/macroalbuminuria), or ≥10 years of evolution with another risk factor. The presence of plaque (intima-media thickness >1.5 mm) was determined by ultrasonography. Concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), circulating leukocytes (classical inflammation markers) and ¹H-NMR-glycoproteins (GlycA, GlycB, GlycF, and the height/width [H/W] ratios of GlycA and GlycB) were determined. We included 189 patients (58% male, age 47.0 [40.7–55.2] years). Thirty-five percent presented plaques (22%, ≥2 plaques). There was no association between hsCRP or leukocytes and atherosclerosis. However, in age- and sex-adjusted models, GlycA, GlycF, and the H/W ratios of GlycA and GlycB gradually increased with the number of plaques (0, 1, ≥2 plaques) only in patients without statins (p < 0.05), with no association in patients receiving this drug (p for interaction <0.05; in ≥2 plaques). Finally, in models adjusted for other classical and T1D-specific risk factors, GlycA and GlycB H/W ratios remained associated with carotid plaque (OR 1.39 [1.12–1.90] and OR 6.89 [1.85–25.62], respectively).In T1D individuals without lipid-lowering treatment, ¹H-NMR-glycoproteins were independently associated with the presence and amount of carotid atherosclerosis, unlike other classical inflammatory markers. Further studies are needed to ascertain their utility as CVD biomarkers.