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Aquafeed value chain analysis of striped catfish in Vietnam

Mohammad R. Hasan, Thomas A. Shipton
Aquaculture 2021 v.541 pp. 736798
Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Pangasius, aquaculture, aquaculture feeds, blood meal, bone meal, canola oil, feed formulation, fingerlings, fish meal, hatcheries, manufacturing, meat, poultry meal, production technology, river deltas, soybeans, supply chain, Vietnam
The Vietnamese striped catfish (pangasius) production sub-sector is characterized by intensive pond production technology and high-quality production inputs. In 2014, annual production of pangasius was 1,143,797 t. The key actors in the value chain comprise input suppliers, including feed ingredients suppliers, feed manufacturers, and hatchery operators (seed producers), along with fingerling and grow-out farmers, fish processors, exporters, consumers and service providers. The pangasius production sector is centred in ten provinces of the Mekong Delta. The value chain analysis revealed that in 2014, there were 109 hatcheries in operation producing 23.6 billion larvae per annum. Hatchery-reared larvae were distributed across 2683 nurseries with a combined annual production of 2.58 billion fingerlings per annum. The grow-out sector comprised 5089 ponds operated as 143 enterprise farms (3389 ha ponds), 1490 family-run farms (1572 ha ponds), and 11 cooperatives (209 ha ponds). In grow-out production, the highest production cost was for feed, which accounted for about 81% of the total production cost. A total of 78 registered feed ingredient-trading companies supply an estimated 1.6 million tonnes of feed ingredients to feed manufacturers. 50.9% of feed ingredients used in aquatic and terrestrial animal feed in Vietnam are imported. The majority of imports comprise high quality protein sources such as fishmeal, poultry meal, meat & bone meal, blood meal, and soybean and canola oil seed meal. In addition, many of the feed additives used in the formulated feed are also imported. There are 48 commercial aquafeed manufacturers supplying the pangasius sector with high quality floating extruded feed. These facilities have an installed production capacity of 5,232,500 t/annum, with an average production capacity of 10,900 t/annum/manufacture. The feed manufacturing sector is centred in Dong Thap province where 26 of the 48 feed manufacturing facilities of the sector are located. Overall, the facilities operate below the installed capacity. In 2014, commercial feed production was estimated at 1,830,075 t (34% capacity), with a mean production cost of USD0.511 ± 0.03/kg based on the grower feed formulation. Profit margins accruing to the feed manufacturing sector were estimated at 4.7%. The study found that farm-made feed production was negligible at (<10,000 t/annum). Feed is distributed through 882 feed wholesalers and retailers, registered as suppliers of pangasius feed. On average, wholesalers traded 643 t of feed per annum, with 94% supplying between 10 and 1000 t per annum. Profit margins for suppliers was estimated at 4.1%.