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Configuration of Gut Microbiota Structure and Potential Functionality in Two Teleosts under the Influence of Dietary Insect Meals

Nikolas Panteli, Maria Mastoraki, Maria Lazarina, Stavros Chatzifotis, Eleni Mente, Konstantinos Ar. Kormas, Efthimia Antonopoulou
Microorganisms 2021 v.9 no.4 pp. -
Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Anaerococcus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Hafnia, Hermetia illucens, Musca domestica, Pseudomonas, Sparus aurata, Staphylococcus, Tenebrio molitor, digestive system, fish feeds, genes, insect meal, insects, intestinal microorganisms, juveniles
Insect meals are considered promising, eco-friendly, alternative ingredients for aquafeed. Considering the dietary influence on establishment of functioning gut microbiota, the effect of the insect meal diets on the microbial ecology should be addressed. The present study assessed diet- and species-specific shifts in gut resident bacterial communities of juvenile reared Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata in response to three experimental diets with insect meals from three insects (Hermetia illucens, Tenebrio molitor, Musca domestica), using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in all dietary treatments. Anaerococcus sp., Cutibacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in D. labrax, and Staphylococcus sp., Hafnia sp. and Aeromonas sp. in S. aurata were the most enriched shared species, following insect-meal inclusion. Network analysis of the dietary treatments highlighted diet-induced changes in the microbial community assemblies and revealed unique and shared microbe-to-microbe interactions. PICRUSt-predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly differentiated, including genes associated with metabolic pathways. The present findings strengthen the importance of diet in microbiota configuration and underline that different insects as fish feed ingredients elicit species-specific differential responses of structural and functional dynamics in gut microbial communities.