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Flavanones in grapefruit, lemons, and limes: A compilation and review of the data from the analytical literature

Peterson, J.J., Beecher, G.R., Bhagwat, S.A., Dwyer, J.T., Gebhardt, S.E., Haytowitz, D.B., Holden, J.M.
Journal of food composition and analysis 2006 v.19 pp. S74
grapefruits, Citrus paradisi, lemons, Citrus limon, limes, Citrus aurantiifolia, fruit composition, chemical constituents of plants, flavanones, hesperidin, naringin, nutrient databanks, data collection, taxonomic revisions, varieties, quantitative analysis
In order to develop a database for flavanones, the dominant flavonoid class in the genus citrus, the relevant scientific literature on flavonoids in grapefruit, lemons, and limes was searched, abstracted, documented, standardized by taxons and units (mg/100 g) and examined for quality. Values for eight flavanones (didymin, eriocitrin, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin, neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, poncirin) are presented. Grapefruit had a total flavanone content (summed means) of 27 mg/100 g as aglycones and a distinct flavanone profile, dominated by naringin. White grapefruit varieties tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in total flavanones than pink and red varieties. For lemons, total flavanones (summed means) were 26 mg/100 g and for limes 17 mg/100 g. The flavanone profiles of both lemons and limes were dominated by hesperidin and eriocitrin.