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Polyphenols Are Intensively Metabolized in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract after Apple Juice Consumption

Kahle, Kathrin, Huemmer, Wolfgang, Kempf, Michael, Scheppach, Wolfgang, Erk, Thomas, Richling, Elke
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2007 v.55 no.26 pp. 10605-10614
apple juice, food intake, polyphenols, metabolism, small intestine, colon, procyanidins, coumaric acids, quinic acid, digestion, humans
Polyphenols are secondary plant compounds showing anticarcinogenic effects both in vitro and in animal experiments and may thus reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in man. The identification of polyphenol metabolites formed via their passage through the small intestine of healthy ileostomy subjects after apple juice consumption is presented. Identification and quantification of polyphenols and their metabolites were performed using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Total procyanidin content (TPA) was measured, and additionally the mean degree of polymerization (DPm) of the procyanidins was determined in the apple juice and ileostomy effluents. As products of polyphenol metabolism, D-(-)-quinic acid and methyl esters of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are liberated from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acid esters. 1-Caffeoylquinic acid and 3-caffeoylquinic acid were determined as products of isomerization. Phloretin 2'-O-glucoside (phloridzin) and phloretin 2'-O-xyloglucoside were metabolized into the corresponding aglycons phloretin and phloretin 2'-O-glucuronide and all were found in the ileostomy effluent. Ninety percent of the consumed procyanidins were recovered in the ileostomy effluent and therefore would reach the colon under physiologic circumstances. The DPm was reduced (DPm of apple juice = 5.7) and varied depending on the time point of excretion. The gastrointestinal passage seems to play an important role in the colonic availability of apple polyphenols.