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Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene

Kordali, Saban, Cakir, Ahmet, Ozer, Hakan, Cakmakci, Ramazan, Kesdek, Memis, Mete, Ebru
Bioresource technology 2008 v.99 no.18 pp. 8788-8795
Origanum, bioactive properties, essential oils, chemical composition, aerial parts, antifungal properties, phytotoxicity, insecticidal properties, monoterpenoids, bioassays, plant pathogenic fungi, mycelium, seed germination, weeds, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum, storage pests, Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Rumex crispus, biological control agents, Turkey (country)
The chemical composition of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum acutidens was analyzed by GC-MS. Carvacrol (87.0%), p-cymene (2.0%), linalool acetate (1.7%), borneol (1.6%) and β-caryophyllene (1.3%) were found to be as main constituents. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities of the oil and its aromatic monoterpene constituents, carvacrol, p-cymene and thymol were also determined. The antifungal assays showed that O. acutidens oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited mycelial growth of 17 phytopathogenic fungi and their antifungal effects were higher than commercial fungicide, benomyl. However, p-cymene possessed lower antifungal activity. The oil, carvacrol and thymol completely inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus and also showed a potent phytotoxic effect against these plants. However, p-cymene did not show any phytotoxic effect. Furthermore, O. acutidens oil showed 68.3% and 36.7% mortality against Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum adults, respectively. The findings of the present study suggest that antifungal and herbicidal properties of the oil can be attributed to its major component, carvacrol, and these agents have a potential to be used as fungicide, herbicide as well as insecticide.