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Differences of aroma development and metabolic pathway gene expression between Kyoho and 87-1 grapes

Xiao-hao JI, Bao-liang WANG, Xiao-di WANG, Xiao-long WANG, Feng-zhi LIU, Hai-bo WANG
Journal of integrative agriculture 2021 v.20 no.6 pp. 1525-1539
Vitis labrusca, Vitis vinifera, agriculture, biochemical pathways, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gene expression, grapes, hybrids, linalool, mutants, odors, ripening
Aroma is an important quality trait of grapes and often the focus of consumers, viticulturists and grapevine breeders. Kyoho is a hybrid between Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca with a strawberry-like scent, while 87-1 is an early-ripening mutant of Muscat hamburg, belonging to Vitis vinifera, with a rose scent. In this study, we compared their aroma compositions and concentrations during berry development by headspace-SPME combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and analyzed the expression differences of enzyme-encoding genes in the LOX-HPL, MEP and MVA metabolic pathways by qRT-PCR. Twelve esters were detected in Kyoho during the whole berry development and they were abundant after veraison, but no esters were detected in 87-1 berries. Linalool was the dominant terpene among the 14 terpenes detected in 87-1 berries, while limited amounts of terpenes were detected in Kyoho berries. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the low expression of VvAAT might explain the low content of ester volatiles in 87-1 berries, and the low expression of coding genes in the MEP pathway, especially VvPNLinNer1, might be the reason for the low content of volatile terpenes in Kyoho berries. The results from this work will promote our understanding of aroma metabolic mechanisms of grapes, and offer some suggestions for grape aromatic quality improvement.