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Performance of various grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and pummelo (C. maxima Merr.) cultivars under the dry tropic conditions of Mexico

Becerra-Rodríguez, Salvador, Medina-Urrutia, Víctor Manuel, Robles-González, Marciano Manuel, Williams, Timothy
Euphytica 2008 v.164 no.1 pp. 27-36
Citrus paradisi, grapefruits, Citrus maxima, pummelos, cultivars, agronomic traits, plant growth, tree growth, canopy, tree trunk, diameter, crop yield, crop quality, weight, color, grapefruit juice, tropics, Mexico
Grapefruit growers in the tropics require information about existing and new citrus cultivars with high productivity potential. The objective of this study was to determine the growth, yield, and fruit quality performance of seven pigmented and four white grapefruit cultivars under the dry tropic conditions of Colima, Mexico. The trees were budded on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock and planted at a distance of 8 x 4 m. 'Oroblanco' and 'Marsh Gardner' white-fleshed grapefruit cultivars and 'Chandler', a pink-fleshed pummelo, were the largest trees with the greatest height (5.0-5.6 m), canopy diameter (6.2-6.3 m), trunk diameter (21.9-23.3 cm), and canopy volume (109-123 m³). Lower height (4.3-4.8 m) and canopy volume (73-96 m³), but with similar canopy diameter to the previously mentioned cultivars, were recorded for the remaining pigmented cultivars. 'Chandler' pummelo and four pigmented grapefruit cultivars ('Shambar', 'Río Red', 'Ray Ruby', and 'Redblush #3') had yearly productions of 34.8, 34.9, 34.1, 32.7, and 30.6 ton ha⁻¹, respectively. The most productive white grapefruit cultivar was 'Marsh Gardner' (30.5 ton ha⁻¹). Grapefruit cultivars having the largest fruit size showed a higher inverse relationship between fruit weight and yield than those with small fruit. Most genotypes had higher values of fruit weight, juice content, and maturity index than those required by the local market. The most promising grapefruit cultivars based on their acceptable growth, yield superior to 30 ton ha⁻¹, and acceptable fruit color were 'Río Red', 'Shambar', 'Ray Ruby', and 'Redblush #3'.