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Metabolic Fate of [14C] Chlorophenols in Radish (Raphanus sativus), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

Pascal-Lorber, Sophie, Despoux, Sabrina, Rathahao, Estelle, Canlet, Cécile, Debrauwer, Laurent, Laurent, François
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2008 v.56 no.18 pp. 8461-8469
chlorophenols, metabolism, plant physiology, radishes, Raphanus sativus, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, spinach, Spinacia oleracea, xenobiotics, food contamination, metabolites, food analysis, food composition
Chlorophenols are potentially harmful pollutants that are found in numerous natural and agricultural systems. Plants are a sink for xenobiotics, which occur either intentionally or not, as they are unable to eliminate them although they generally metabolize them into less toxic compounds. The metabolic fate of [14C] 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), [14C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and [14C] 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) was investigated in lettuce, spinach, and radish to locate putative toxic metabolites that could become bioavailable to food chains. Radish plants were grown on sand for four weeks before roots were dipped in a solution of radiolabeled chlorophenol. The leaves of six-week old lettuce and spinach were treated. Three weeks after treatments, metabolites from edible plant parts were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Characterization of compounds highlighted the presence of complex glycosides. Upon hydrolysis in the digestive tract of animals or humans, these conjugates could return to the toxic parent compound, and this should be kept in mind for registration studies.