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Effects of Irrigation and Planting Geometry on Soybean (Glycine max L.) Seed Nutrition in Humid Climates

Srinivasa R. Pinnamaneni, Saseendran S. Anapalli, Nacer Bellaloui, Krishna N. Reddy
International journal of agronomy 2021 v.2021 pp. -
Glycine max, alanine, atmospheric precipitation, climatic factors, furrow irrigation, glycine (amino acid), humid zones, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lipid content, methionine, nutritive value, oleic acid, protein content, raffinose, rainfed farming, seasonal variation, seed development, seed storage proteins, seeds, solar radiation, soybean oil, soybeans, stachyose, stearic acid, sucrose, valine
This study investigates the effect of irrigation (FI, all rows-irrigation; HI, alternate row irrigation; RF, rainfed) and planting geometry (PG) (SR, single-row; TR, twin-row) on soybean seed constituents. Results showed that most of these seed components were significantly affected by crop season due to contrasting precipitation and solar radiation patterns, particularly during July-August, coinciding with early reproductive and seed development stages. Both seed protein and oil levels responded positively to irrigation, while most of the amino acids were nonresponsive. The protein content ranged between 36.3 and 37.6% in 2018, while it was between 36.4 and 38.3% in 2019. Total seed oil content varied between 24.2 and 26.1% in 2018 and between 25.3 and 26.5% in 2019. Among amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, and methionine levels were significantly higher in both FI and HI treatments. Among sugars, only sucrose was higher in response to the RF treatment, and irrigation did not affect both stachyose and raffinose. Oleic acid was higher in RF, while no significant differences were observed for linolenic and linoleic acids. Similarly, seasonal variation was significant for stearic acid content, but the 2019 season had relatively higher accumulation (stearic acid: between 4.1 and 4.5% in 2018 and from 4.6 to 4.9% in 2019). These results indicate that both irrigation and climate during seed development can alter some seed composition constituents and play critical roles in determining seed nutritional qualities.