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Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Deltamethrin Resistance in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
- Yoon, Kyong Sup, Kwon, Deok Ho, Strycharz, Joseph P., Hollingsworth, Craig S., Lee, Si Hyeock, Clark, J. Marshall
- Journal of medical entomology 2008 v.45 no.6 pp. 1092-1101
- Cimex lectularius, deltamethrin, insecticide resistance, resistance mechanisms, esterases, glutathione transferase, enzyme activity, genetic resistance, sodium channels, molecular cloning, complementary DNA, sequence analysis, amino acid sequences, point mutation, New York
- This study establishes deltamethrin resistance in a common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., population collected from New York City (NY-BB). The NY-BB population was 264-fold more resistant to 1% deltamethrin in contact bioassay compared with an insecticide-susceptible population collected in Florida (FL-BB). General esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities of NY-BB were not statistically different from those of FL-BB. cDNA fragments that encoded the open reading frame of voltage-sensitive sodium channel α-subunit genes from the FL-BB and NY-BB populations, respectively, were obtained by homology probing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence alignment of the internal and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) fragments generated a 6,500-bp cDNA sequence contig, which was composed of a 6,084-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 2,027 amino acid residues and 186-bp 5' and 230-bp 3' untranslated regions (5' and 3' UTRs, respectively). Sequence comparisons of the open reading frames of the α-subunit genes identified two point mutations (V419L and L925I) that were presented only in the NY-BB population. L925I, located the intracellular loop between IIS4 and IIS5, has been previously found in a highly pyrethroid-resistant populations of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). V419L, located in the IS6 transmembrane segment, is a novel mutation. A Val to Met mutation at the corresponding position of the bed bug V419, however, has been identified in the tobacco budworm as a kdr-type mutation. This evidence suggests that the two mutations are likely the major resistance-causing mutations in the deltamethrin-resistant NY-BB through a knockdown-type nerve insensitivity mechanism.