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Membrane Fractionation Processes for Removing 90% to 95% of the Lactose and Sodium from Skim Milk and for Preparing Lactose and Sodium-Reduced Skim Milk
- Morr, C.V., Brandon, S.C.
- Journal of food science 2008 v.73 no.9 pp. C639
- skim milk, lactose, sodium, milk composition, food composition, fractionation, artificial membranes, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, temperature, drinking water, chemical concentration, permeates, whey protein, calcium, magnesium, potassium hydroxide, phosphoric acid, citric acid, frozen storage, storage time, off flavors, viscosity, flavor
- Pilot-scale microfiltration (MF), microfiltration-diafiltration (MDF), ultrafiltration (UF), ultrafiltration-diafiltration (UDF), and nanofilration (NF) membrane fractionation processes were designed and evaluated for removing 90% to 95% of the lactose and sodium from skim milk. The study was designed to evaluate several membrane fractionation schemes as a function of: (1) membrane types with and without diafiltration; (2) fractionation process temperatures ranging from 17 to 45 °C; (3) sources of commercial drinking water used as diafiltrant; and (4) final mass concentration ratios (MCR) ranging from about 2 to 5. MF and MDF membranes provided highest flux values, but were unsatisfactory because they failed to retain all of the whey proteins. UDF fractionation processes removed more than 90% to 95% of the lactose and sodium from skim milk. NF permeate prepared from UDF cumulative permeate contained sodium and other mineral concentrations that would make them unsuitable for use as a diafiltrant for UDF applications. A method was devised for preparing simulated milk permeate (SMP) formulated with calcium, magnesium, and potassium hydroxides, and phosphoric and citric acids for use as UDF diafiltrant or for preparing lactose and sodium reduced skim milk (L-RSM). MF retentates with MCR values of 4.7 to 5.0 exhibited extremely poor frozen storage stabilities of less than 1 wk at -20 °C, whereas MCR 1.77 to 2.95 MDF and UDF retentates and skim milk control exhibited frozen storage stabilities of more than 16 wk. L-RSM exhibited a whiter appearance and a lower viscosity than skim milk, lacked natural milk flavor, and exhibited a metallic off-flavor.