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Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in, cultured and wild, white seabream from Northwest Atlantic

Ferreira, Marta, Caetano, Miguel, Costa, Joana, Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro, Vale, Carlos, Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda
Science of the total environment 2008 v.407 no.1 pp. 638-646
lead, oxidative stress, farmed fish, marine fish, bream, biomarkers, cadmium, water pollution, bioaccumulation, copper, muscles, arsenic, superoxide dismutase, Sparidae, enzyme activity, antioxidants, fish culture, liver, catalase, animal stress, life cycle (organisms), Portugal, Atlantic Ocean
Metals are environmentally ubiquitous and can be found at high concentrations in seawater and subsequently in marine organisms. Metals with high redox potential can trigger oxidative stress mechanisms with damaging effects in biological tissues. In aquatic species, oxidative stress has been evaluated by assessing antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative damages in tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers and metal residues in white seabream (Diplodus sargus), a species entering aquaculture production in Portugal. Metal residues (Cu, Cd, As and Pb), in liver and muscle, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed at different stages in the life cycle of white seabream under culture conditions and in wild specimens, of a marketable size. Metal concentrations in tissues were low, and below the established limits. However, wild white seabream showed higher accumulation than cultured ones. Antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were correlated with metal accumulation. Oxidative damages to tissues were low, with wild white seabream showing lower levels than cultured fish. This study showed that white seabream has a good antioxidant defense system, capable of reducing oxidative damages in tissues resulting from the presence of metals.