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Chitosan/Hyaluronic acid/Alginate and an assorted polymers loaded with honey, plant, and marine compounds for progressive wound healing—Know-how

Murugan Prasathkumar, Subramaniam Sadhasivam
International journal of biological macromolecules 2021 v.186 pp. 656-685
alginates, amputation, andrographolide, angiogenesis, biocompatibility, biocompatible materials, biodegradability, biofilm, carrageenan, cartilage, cellulose, cellulose acetate, chitin, chitosan, curcumin, fibrin, gelatin, honey, hyaluronic acid, hydrogels, medicine, nanofibers, pullulan, quercetin, risk
Biomaterials are being extensively used in regenerative medicine including tissue engineering applications, as these enhance tissue development, repair, and help in the process of angiogenesis. Wound healing is a crucial biological process of regeneration of ruptured tissue after getting injury to the skin and other soft tissue in humans and animals. Besides, the accumulation of microbial biofilms around the wound surface can increase the risk and physically obstruct the wound healing activity, and may even lead to amputation. Hence, in both acute and chronic wounds, prominent biomaterials are required for wound healing along with antimicrobial agents. This review comprehensively addresses the antimicrobial and wound healing effects of chitosan, chitin, cellulose acetate, hyaluronic acid, pullulan, bacterial cellulose, fibrin, alginate, etc. based wound dressing biomaterials fabricated with natural resources such as honey, plant bioactive compounds, and marine-based polymers. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, bioactive compounds derived from honey, plants, and marine resources are commonly used in biomedical and tissue engineering applications. Different types of polymer-based biomaterials including hydrogel, film, scaffold, nanofiber, and sponge dressings fabricated with bioactive agents including honey, curcumin, tannin, quercetin, andrographolide, gelatin, carrageenan, etc., can exhibit significant wound healing process in, diabetic wounds, diabetic ulcers, and burns, and help in cartilage repair along with good biocompatibility and antimicrobial effects. Among the reviewed biomaterials, carbohydrate polymers such as chitosan-based biomaterials are prominent and widely used for wound healing applications followed by hyaluronic acid and alginate-based biomaterials loaded with honey, plant, and marine compounds. This review first provides an overview of the vast natural resources used to formulate different biomaterials for the treatment of antimicrobial, acute, and chronic wound healing processes.