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Efficacy of insecticide mixtures against pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant populations of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
- Ahmad, Munir, Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmed, Sayyed, Ali H.
- Pest management science 2009 v.65 no.3 pp. 266-274
- insect pests, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, application rate, Spodoptera litura, pesticide mixtures, geographical variation, plant pests, metabolic detoxification, cypermethrin, natural selection, deltamethrin, synergism, insecticide resistance, resistance management, fipronil
- BACKGROUND: Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest worldwide, with over 112 host plants, and is exposed to insecticides throughout the year, resulting in the rapid development of resistance. Insecticide mixtures can delay the development of resistance more effectively than sequences or rotations. Cypermethrin, deltamethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos and fipronil were assessed separately and in mixtures against laboratory susceptible S. litura and two field-collected populations.RESULTS: The field-collected population from Khanewal (KWL) was significantly more resistant to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and profenofos than one collected from Muzaffar Garh (MGH). Mixtures of cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos or profenofos and of deltamethrin + chlorpyrifos or profenofos at 1:1, 1:10 and 1:20 ratios significantly increased (P < 0.01) toxicity to cypermethrin and deltamethrin in field populations. The combination indices of cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios and cypermethrin + fipronil at 1:1, 1:10 and 1:20 ratios for the KWL strain and of cypermethrin + profenofos or fipronil at 1:1, 1:10 and 1:20 ratios for MGH were significantly below 1, suggesting synergistic interactions. The inhibitors DEF and PBO largely overcame resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and profenofos, suggesting that resistance to the insecticides was associated with esterase and monooxygenase detoxification respectively.CONCLUSION: Chlorpyrifos, profenofos and fipronil could be used in mixtures to restore cypermethrin and deltamethrin susceptibility. These findings may have considerable practical implications for S. litura resistance management.