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Production of lipase-catalyzed solid fat from mustard oil and palm stearin with linoleic acid by response surface methodology
- Alim, Abdul Md, Lee, Jeung Hee, Lee, Ki-Teak
- Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2009 v.89 no.4 pp. 706-712
- mustard oil, palm oils, stearin, linoleic acid, enzymatic treatment, triacylglycerol lipase, enzyme activity, response surface methodology, plant fats, melting point, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, fatty acid composition
- BACKGROUND: Solid fat was produced from mustard oil and palm stearin through lipase-catalyzed reaction, in which linoleic acid was intentionally incorporated. For optimizing the reaction condition of melting point and ω6/ω3 fatty acids, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed with three reaction variables such as substrate mole ratio of mustard oil (MO) to palm stearin (PS) (X₁), reaction temperature (X₂) and reaction time (X₃).RESULTS: The predictive model for melting point of solid fat was adequate and reproducible due to no significant lack of fit (P = 0.0764), P-value (0.0037) of the model, and satisfactory level of coefficient of determination (R² = 0.92). For the ω6/ω3 ratio model, R² and P-value were 0.89 and 0.0132, respectively, but lack of fit was significant (P = 0.0389). The melting point of the produced solid fat was affected by substrate mole ratio, whereas reaction temperature and time had no significant effect. The ω6/ω3 ratio of solid fat was influenced by substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature but not by reaction time. Based on ridge analysis, lower ω6/ω3 ratio was predicted by decreasing substrate mole ratio and reaction time, and by increasing reaction temperature.CONCLUSIONS: For producing solid fat with a specific melting point of 34.57 °C, a combination of 1:2 (X₁), 65.17 °C (X₂) and 21.46 h (X₃) was optimized, and the optimization was confirmed under the same reaction conditions. The solid fat contained palmitic (37.8%), linoleic (24.8%), oleic (21.3%), and erucic acid (9.7%), and its solid fat content was 30.3% and 10.3% at 20 and 30 °C, respectively.