U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Benefits and applications of Moringa oleifera as a plant protein source in Aquafeed: A review

Hany M.R. Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Mustafa Shukry, Joanna Nowosad, Dariusz Kucharczyk
Aquaculture 2022 v.547 pp. 737369
Moringa oleifera, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, aquaculture, aquaculture feeds, body composition, carotenoids, feed conversion, fish, fish meal, flavonoids, lectins, plant proteins, protein sources, trees
The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry, the global shortage of fish meal (FM) supplies from fisheries, and the continuous demand for FM as a primary protein source in aquafeed lead to increase the necessity to find new alternatives. Plant protein sources have gained significant importance among aquaculture farmers and nutritionists because of their availability, eco-friendly, sustainability, environmentally safe, and relatively lower prices than FM protein. Extensive studies have been conducted to better assess the efficiency of plant protein sources as a partial or complete substitution of dietary FM in aquafeed. From these sources, Moringa oleifera has been widely used. It is universally known as “the miracle tree” because of its high nutritional values and unique composition of phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, tannins, lectins and terpenoids. These phytochemicals have numerous properties such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and immune-stimulant characteristics. This review article describes the nutritional features of M. oleifera with a special emphasis on the current research findings on the possibility of including different forms of M. oleifera to replace FM protein in the diets of several fish species. It also evaluates its effects on the growth parameters, feed utilisation indices, and proximate body composition of fish. The haemato-biochemical parameters, hepato-renal functions, immune responses, and antioxidative capacity of fish fed M. oleifera-based diets are also assessed. The data will help to provide new perceptions and references for future research interests and aquaculture production.