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Pharmacological properties of the extract and some isolated compounds of Clausena lansium stem bark: Anti-trichomonal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects
- Adebajo, A.C., Iwalewa, E.O., Obuotor, E.M., Ibikunle, G.F., Omisore, N.O., Adewunmi, C.O., Obaparusi, O.O., Klaes, M., Adetogun, G.E., Schmidt, T.J., Verspohl, E.J.
- Journal of ethnopharmacology 2009 v.122 no.1 pp. 10-19
- plant extracts, bark, medicinal plants, medicinal properties, traditional medicine, Clausena lansium, glycemic effect, anti-inflammatory activity, hepatoprotective effect, antioxidant activity, Trichomonas, antiprotozoal agents, malaria, hepatotoxicity, rats, animal disease models, methanol, methylene chloride, insulin, enzyme activity, bronchitis, hepatitis
- Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Clausena lansium (Fool's Curry Leaf) is used for various ethnomedical conditions in some countries, including bronchitis, malaria, viral hepatitis, acute and chronic gastro-intestinal inflammation, and as a spicy substitute of the popular Curry leaf tree (Murraya koenigii). Aim of the study: This study was to evaluate the ethnomedical uses of the stem bark in inflammatory conditions, hepatotoxicity and to determine the anti-diabetic and anti-trichomonal properties of the plant. Materials and Method: Anti-trichomonal, in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic and insulin stimulating, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities using Trichomonas gallinae, glucose loaded rats and in vitro insulin secreting cell line (INS-1 cell), carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity and DPPH scavenging ability methods respectively for the extracts and some isolates were determined. Results: A dichloromethane extract was superior over methanolic extract with respect to an anti-trichomonal activity which was measured after 24 and 48h. The isolated compounds imperatorin and 3-formylcarbazole had the main anti-trichomonal activity (LC₅₀s of 6.0, 3.0 and 3.6, 9.7μg/mL after 24 and 48h, respectively). Methanolic extract (100mg/kg) induced maximum and significant (p <0.05) anti-hyperglycaemic activity of 15.8% at 30min and a 38.5% increase in plasma insulin at 60min, compared to control. The increase in plasma insulin after 60min, compared to 0min, was 62.0% (p <0.05). The significant 174.6% increase of insulin release from INS-1 cells (in vitro) at 0.1mg/ml indicates that it mediates its antidiabetic action mainly by stimulating insulin release. Imperatorin and chalepin were the major active constituents increasing in vitro insulin release to 170.3 and 137.9%, respectively. 100mg/kg of the methanolic extract produced an anti-inflammatory activity after 4h. A sedative effect was not observed. 100 and 200mg/kg of methanolic extract administered i.p., reduced CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity firstly by 5.3 and 8.4% reduction in phenobarbitone-sleeping time respectively, secondly by reversing the reduction in serum liver proteins by 7.0-8.8%, serum AST, ALT and ALP activities by 27.7-107.9% and thirdly by diminishing increased values of plasma AST, ALT and ALP activities by 13.2-83.8%. The extract exhibited antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective activity of C. lansium is partly due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and confirms its folkloric use in the treatment of gastro-intestinal inflammation, bronchitis and hepatitis. In addition the use of C. lansium stem bark would be useful in diabetes and trichomoniasis.