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Effect of Pyridoxamine on Acrylamide Formation in a Glucose/Asparagine Model System

Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema, Morales, Francisco J.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2009 v.57 no.3 pp. 901-909
food chemistry, asparagine, reaction inhibition, Maillard reaction, glucose, acrylamides, heat treatment, pyridoxamine
The effect of pyridoxamine (PM) on the reduction of acrylamide (AA) formation in a low-moisture equimolar glucose/asparagine model system was investigated. Formation/elimination kinetics of acrylamide was carried out at temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. Time courses of glucose, asparagine, pyridoxamine, 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA), acrylamide, and browning were measured to get more insight on the mechanism of action of PM. PM exhibited an inhibitory effect on AA formation at all temperatures studied, but became more relevant at 160 and 180 °C (up to 51% reduction). Degradation rates of glucose and asparagine were not significantly affected by PM, but PM was rapidly consumed in the glucose/asparagine system. Browning was significantly suppressed by addition of PM in the system, and formation of 3-APA was increased as compared to control. In comparison with pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and ascorbic acid, PM exerted the highest inhibition activity against AA formation, and a clear dose-response was observed. The nucleophilic aminomethyl group of PM was crucial for the exertion of an inhibition effect more than double those other B6 vitamers. The action mechanism of PM was attributable to its structural features that have the capacity to scavenge intermediary dicarbonyls formed during sugar degradation and advanced stages of the Maillard reaction. These findings open new possibilities for strategies in acrylamide mitigation where formation of reactive dicarbonyls should be carefully considered.