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The potential of high-resolution BAC-FISH in banana breeding

De Capdeville, Guy, Souza Júnior, Manoel Teixeira, Szinay, Dóra, Diniz, Leandro Eugênio Cardamone, Wijnker, Erik, Swennen, Rony, Kema, Gerrit Haatje Jan, De Jong, Hans
Euphytica 2009 v.166 no.3 pp. 431-443
fluorescence in situ hybridization, bacterial artificial chromosomes, clones, Musa acuminata, genes, bananas, physical chromosome mapping
The genetic complexity in the genus Musa has been subject of study in many breeding programs worldwide. Parthenocarpy, female sterility, polyploidy in different cultivars and limited amount of genetic and genomic information make the production of new banana cultivars difficult and time consuming. In addition, it is known that part of the cultivars and related wild species in the genus contain numerous chromosomal rearrangements. In order to produce new cultivars more effectively breeders must better understand the genetic differences of the potential crossing parents for introgression hybridization, but extensive genetic information is lacking. As an alternative to achieve information on genetic collinearity we make use of modern chromosome map technology known as high-resolution fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). This article presents the technical aspects and applications of such a technology in Musa species. The technique deals with BAC clone positioning on pachytene chromosomes of Calcutta 4 (Musa acuminata ssp. burmanicoides, A genome group, section Eumusa) and M. velutina (section Rodochlamys). Pollen mother cells digestion with pectolytic enzymes and maceration with acetic acid were optimized for making cell spread preparations appropriate for FISH. As an example of this approach we chose BAC clones that contain markers to known resistance genes and hybridize them for establishing their relative positions on the two species. Technical challenges for adapting existing protocols to the banana cells are presented. We also discuss how this technique can be instrumental for validating collinearity between potential crossing parents and how the method can be helpful in future mapping initiatives, and how this method allows identification of chromosomal rearrangements between related Musa species and cultivars.