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MALDI-TOF/MS Fingerprinting of Triacylglycerols (TAGs) in Olive Oils Produced in the Israeli Negev Desert

Chapagain, Bishnu P., Wiesman, Zeev
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2009 v.57 no.4 pp. 1135-1142
olive oil, food composition, lipid composition, triacylglycerols, mass spectrometry, free fatty acids, peroxide value, Olea europaea, cultivars, tocopherols, phytosterols, Israel
Triacylglycerols (TAGs), composed of three esterified fatty acids with an attached glycerol backbone, are the main component of vegetable oil (95%) and an important source of energy and nutrition for humans, so their compositional analysis merits extensive interest. Intact TAG composition of oil in native form is highly important, rather than the fatty acid profile itself. This paper reports the analysis of the TAG profile of olive oils produced from the six common olive cultivars grown in the Negev desert of Israel (Barnea, Souri, Arbequina, Picual, Leccino, and Koroneiki) together with the content of some additional common oil quality parameters closely associated with TAG composition and integrity. Matrix-assisted laser ionization-desorption time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) fingerprintings were employed for TAG profiling. With 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), MALDI-TOF/MS was able to fingerprint the intact TAG profiles in olive oils in a fast and easy manner without any derivatization. Triolein (31.53%) was found to be the main intact TAG followed by dioleoyl-palmitoyl (23.06%) and dioleoyl-linoleoyl (14.31%). MALDI-TOF/MS also enabled calculation of the main fatty acids and their compositions in a simple manner from the TAG profiles; the results are found to be very similar to conventional methods determined by GC and HPLC. Average free fatty acids and peroxide value were found to be less than 0.8% and 10 mequiv of O2/kg of oil, respectively, in all of the tested oils. Relatively high levels of tocopherols (av = 325 μg/kg) and phytosterols (av = 2375 mg/kg) were found. This study demonstrates MALDI-TOF/MS technology as an easy and fast methodology for TAG and fatty acid profile analysis in olive oils. Additionally, this study also shows the high levels of tocopherols and phytosterols in the olive oils produced from the common cultivars grown in the Israeli Negev desert.