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Genetic diversity of pestivirus isolates in cattle from Western Austria

Hornberg, Andrea, Fernández, Sandra Revilla, Vogl, Claus, Vilcek, Stefan, Matt, Monika, Fink, Maria, Köfer, Josef, Schöpf, Karl
Veterinary microbiology 2009 v.135 no.3-4 pp. 205-213
cattle, bovine viral diarrhea, etiology, strains, pathogenicity, disease prevalence, epidemiological studies, disease surveillance, molecular epidemiology, molecular genetics, nucleotide sequences, genotype, genetic variation, genetic distance, microbial genetics, geographical variation, phylogeny, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, Austria
The genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates in infected cattle from Tyrol and Vorarlberg (Austria) was investigated. Blood samples were collected within the compulsory Austrian BVDV control programme during 2005 and 2006. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and partially the N-terminal autoprotease (Npro) were amplified by one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 5'-UTR and Npro sequences demonstrated that almost all isolates (307/310) were of the BVDV-1 genotype. They were clustered into eight different subtypes, here listed by their frequency of occurrence: BVDV-1h (143), BVDV-1f (79), BVDV-1b (41), BVDV-1d (28), BVDV-1e (6), BVDV-1a (4), BVDV-1g (3) and BVDV1-k (3). Two pestivirus isolates were typed as BVDV-2 and one isolate as BDV closely related to Gifhorn strain (BDV-3). Correlation among isolates could only be observed at the farm level, i.e., within a herd. However, no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level. Because of the wide distribution of certain BVDV-1 subtypes and the low prevalence of herd-specific strains, a determination of tracing routes of infection was not possible. Furthermore, recombination events were not detected.