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Ethnopharmacological evaluation of antioxidant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory activity of some traditional medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in Togo/Africa

P. Kola, K. Metowogo, S.N. Manjula, G. Katawa, H. Elkhenany, K.M. Mruthunjaya, K. Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.A. Aklikokou
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2022 v.283 pp. 114673
Bauhinia thonningii, Cochlospermum, Paullinia pinnata, Securidaca longipedunculata, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory activity, antineoplastic agents, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, bovine serum albumin, cytotoxicity, denaturation, egg albumen, flavonoids, inhibitory concentration 50, medicinal plants, neoplasm cells, polyphenols, traditional medicine, Africa
Cancer is a multistep disease and its management is exceedingly expensive. Nowadays medicinal plants are gaining more attention in drug discovery and approximately 70% of anticancer drugs were developed from natural products or plants. A strong candidate from medicinal plant with anticancer potential should have four major properties: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic activities.In order to assess Togolese traditional healer's claims about the anticancer potential of medicinal plants and obtain candidate plants for anticancer drug discovery, some species were selected from surveys and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic activities.Four species, Cochlospermum planchonii (CP), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Paullinia pinnata (PP), and Securidaca longipedunculata (SL) were selected and analyzed to detect the phytochemical components. The mentioned bioactivities were evaluated using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays.Relative to SL extract, CP and PT have shown significantly high polyphenols and flavonoids content. The DPPH, FRAP, and TAC of the extracts revealed that CP, PT, and PP have a potent antioxidant effect compared to SL. MDA analysis revealed the same antioxidant activity as CP, PT and PP showed a minor MDA level. The egg albumin denaturation assay showed that IC50 of CP and PP was significantly higher than control (P < 0.05). In contrast, the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) results showed a nonsignificant effect (P > 0.05). Notably, SL extract was nonsignificant to control in both Egg Albumin and BSA. Furthermore, angiogenesis assay showed that SL at 50 μg/ml and PP at 100 μg/ml effectively reduced the number of blood vessels than control and showed a potent anti-angiogenic effect (2.7-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively, P < 0.05). No cytotoxicity on PBMC was reported for CP, PP, and PT up to 1000 μg/ml, whereas SL at 1000 μg/ml exhibit benign cytotoxicity (P < 0.0001).This study provided in vitro evidence supporting further evaluation on cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo.