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Detachment of sprayed colloidal copper oxychloride-metalaxyl fungicides by a shallow water flow

Pose-Juan, Eva, Paradelo-Pérez, Marcos, Rial-Otero, Raquel, Simal-Gándara, Jesus, López-Periago, José E.
Pest management science 2009 v.65 no.6 pp. 615-623
copper oxychloride, metalaxyl, water flow, adhesion, pesticide formulations, colloids, colloidal properties, shear stress, physical models, simulation models, dosage, temperature, sorption, application rate, solubilization, plastic film
BACKGROUND: Flow shear stress induced by rainfall promotes the loss of the pesticides sprayed on crops. Some of the factors influencing the losses of colloidal-size particulate fungicides are quantified by using a rotating shear system model. With this device it was possible to analyse the flow shear influencing washoff of a commercial fungicide formulation based on a copper oxychloride-metalaxyl mixture that was sprayed on a polypropylene surface. A factor plan with four variables, i.e. water speed and volume (both variables determining flow boundary stress in the shear device), formulation dosage and drying temperature, was set up to monitor colloid detachment.RESULTS: This experimental design, together with sorption experiments of metalaxyl on copper oxychloride, and the study of the dynamics of metalaxyl and copper oxychloride washoff, made it possible to prove that metalaxyl washoff from a polypropylene surface is controlled by transport in solution, whereas that of copper oxychloride occurs by particle detachment and transport of particles. Average losses for metalaxyl and copper oxychloride were, respectively, 29 and 50% of the quantity applied at the usual recommended dosage for crops.CONCLUSION: The key factors affecting losses were flow shear and the applied dosage. Empirical models using these factors provided good estimates of the percentage of fungicide loss. From the factor analysis, the main mechanism for metalaxyl loss induced by a shallow water flow is solubilisation, whereas copper loss is controlled by erosion of copper oxychloride particles.