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Nutritional intervention in patients with periodontal disease: clinical, immunological and microbiological variables during 12 months

Jenzsch, Axel, Eick, Sigrun, Rassoul, Fausi, Purschwitz, Regina, Jentsch, Holger
British journal of nutrition 2009 v.101 no.6 pp. 879-885
nutritional intervention, patients, mouth, human diseases, human nutrition, metabolic syndrome, diet-related diseases, disease course, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, serine proteinases, enzyme activity, saliva, oxidation, antioxidant activity, gingivitis, plate count, catalase
The role of nutrition in onset, progression and treatment of periodontitis has not been thoroughly evaluated. In the present prospective clinical study, we investigated the influence of a nutritional intervention on changes in clinical, microbiological and immunological periodontal variables during a period of 12 months in patients with the metabolic syndrome and chronic periodontitis. Twenty female subjects with the metabolic syndrome and mild to moderate chronic periodontitis participated in a guided nutritional intervention programme. Examinations were assessed before, and at 2 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after intervention. Clinical measurements included probing depth, Löe and Silness gingival index and Quigley-Hein plaque index. In gingival crevicular fluid, periodontopathogens, levels of IL-1β and IL-6 as well as the activity of granulocyte elastase were determined. In stimulated saliva, antioxidative and oxidative variables were measured. After 12 months the following significant changes could be observed: reduction of clinical probing depth (2·40 v. 2·20 mm; P < 0·001), reduction of gingival inflammation (gingival index 1·13 v. 0·9; P < 0·001), reduced concentrations of IL-1β (4·63 v. 1·10 pg/ml per site; P < 0·001) as well as IL-6 (1·85 v. 0·34 pg/ml per site; P = 0·022) in gingival crevicular fluid. Bacterial counts in gingival crevicular fluid as well as oxidative and antioxidative variables in saliva showed no significant changes. Only salivary catalase showed a tendency to lower values. These findings indicate that in patients with the metabolic syndrome wholesome nutrition might reduce inflammatory variables of periodontal disease and promote periodontal health.