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Biological control by Clonostachys rosea as a key component in the integrated management of strawberry gray mold
- Cota, L.V., Maffia, L.A., Mizubuti, E.S.G., Macedo, P.E.F.
- Biological control 2009 v.50 no.3 pp. 222-230
- fungal antagonists, strawberries, conidia, Fragaria ananassa, Botrytis cinerea, fungal diseases of plants, fungicides, crop residues, disease control, disease incidence, Clonostachys rosea, flowers, crop yield, plant pathogenic fungi, integrated pest management, fruit crops, biological control
- Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is an important strawberry disease. As gray mold control is difficult, there is a need to evaluate integrated methods to successfully manage the disease. The efficiency of integrating Clonostachys rosea sprays, fungicide sprays, and crop debris removal to manage gray mold was evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2006 and 2007. Leaf colonization by C. rosea (LAC), average number of B. cinerea conidiophores (ANC), gray mold incidence in both flowers (Iflower) and fruits (Ifruit), and yield were evaluated weekly. In both years, LAC was higher in the treatments with no fungicide. When compared to the check, ANC, Iflower and Ifruit were most reduced in treatments that included C. rosea sprays. Maximal reductions were achieved with the combination of C. rosea sprays, fungicide sprays and debris removal (96.62%, 86.54% and 65.33% reductions of ANC, Iflower and Ifruit, respectively). Otherwise, maximal yield (103.14% increase as compared to the check) was achieved with the combination of the three treatments. With just C. rosea sprays, ANC, Iflower and Ifruit were reduced by 92.01%, 68.48% and 65.33%, respectively, whereas yield was increased by 75.15%. Considering the individual effects, application of C. rosea was the most efficient treatment. Chemical control was effective only in plots without debris removal. Elimination of crop debris was the least effective method in reducing gray mold incidence in both flowers and fruits. The integrated control approach enhanced the efficacy of the individual methods of gray mold control and provided high strawberry yield. An important component of this integrated approach it the biological control with C. rosea.