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Changes in volatile composition during fruit development and ripening of 'Alphonso' mango

Pandit, Sagar S., Kulkarni, Ram S., Chidley, Hemangi G., Giri, Ashok P., Pujari, Keshav H., Köllner, Tobias G., Degenhardt, Jörg, Gershenzon, Jonathan, Gupta, Vidya S.
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2009 v.89 no.12 pp. 2071-2081
temporal variation, volatile compounds, Mangifera indica, cultivars, sesquiterpenoids, lactones, quantitative analysis, monoterpenoids, mangoes, alcohols, flowers, aldehydes, ripening, fruit composition, fruit crops, fruiting, leaves
BACKGROUND: Volatile blends of five developing and five ripening stages of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Alphonso) were investigated along with those of flowers and leaves. Raw and ripe fruits of cv. Sabja were also used for comparison.RESULTS: A total of 55 volatiles belonging to various chemical classes such as aldehydes, alcohols, mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, lactones and furanones were identified. In all Alphonso tissues monoterpenes quantitatively dominated, with 57-99% contribution; in particular, (Z)-ocimene was found in the highest amount. Ripeness was characterized by the de novo appearance of lactones and furanones in the blend of monoterpenes. Sabja was distinguished by the abundance of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the raw fruit, and that of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the ripe stage.CONCLUSION: Various stages of the Alphonso fruit during transition from flower to ripe fruit are characterized by unique volatile signatures that are distinguished from each other by the qualitative and quantitative appearance of different volatile compounds. Thus volatiles can be highly informative markers while studying the development and ripening of mango.