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Analysis of the immunoproteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type reveals immunogenic homologues to other known virulence traits in related Mycoplasma species

Jores, Joerg, Meens, Jochen, Buettner, Falk F.R., Linz, Bodo, Naessens, Jan, Gerlach, Gerald F.
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2009 v.131 no.3-4 pp. 238-245
cattle, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, virulence, bacterial antigens, bacterial proteins, proteome, proteomics, species differences, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, Mycoplasma agalactiae, mass spectrometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, vaccine development, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC) has been eradicated in the developed world, but it is still present in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa. After initially successful control measures in the 1960s it has been spreading due to a lack of money, fragmentation of veterinary services, uncontrolled cattle movement, insufficient vaccine efficacy and sensitivity of current diagnostic tests. In this study we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblot with sera from MmmSC-infected animals and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry to identify novel immunogenic proteins as candidate molecules for improved diagnostics and vaccines. We identified 24 immunogens recognized by pooled sera from experimentally infected cattle. Furthermore, a serum from an animal with acute clinical disease as well as severe pathomorphological lesions recognized 13 additional immunogens indicating variation in the antibody responses to CBPP amongst cattle. Most immunogens showed compelling similarity to protein/gene sequences in the two ruminant pathogens M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type both belonging to the mycoides cluster. Three of these proteins, namely glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase, adenylosuccinate synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, had no compelling homologue in the other distantly related bovine pathogen M. agalactiae. In addition, translation elongation factor Tu, heat shock protein 70, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, which have been found to mediate adhesion to host tissue in other mycoplasmas were shown to be expressed and recognized by sera. These proteins have potential for the development of improved diagnostic tests and possibly vaccines.