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Effect of lipopolysaccharide on intranasal administration of liposomal Newcastle disease virus vaccine to SPF chickens

Tseng, Li-Ping, Chiou, Chwei-Jang, Chen, Chien-Chung, Deng, Ming-Chung, Chung, Tze-Wen, Huang, Yi-You, Liu, Der-Zen
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2009 v.131 no.3-4 pp. 285-289
chickens, Newcastle disease, Newcastle disease virus, disease prevention, vaccination, inactivated vaccines, vaccine development, vaccine adjuvants, immunostimulants, lipopolysaccharides, drug delivery systems, liposomes (artificial), phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylserines, intranasal administration, nasal mucosa, specific pathogen-free animals, mucosal immunity, humoral immunity, immunoglobulins
In order to potentiate the low immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus immunized into chickens by mucosal route, liposomes as a drug delivery system and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) as an immuno-stimulator were evaluated. Here, we report a new nasal delivery system of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was based on different lipids to form MLV (multi-lamellar vehicles) liposomes. The liposomes had combined carrier and adjuvant activities, which induced strong systemic (serum) and local (lung and nasal) humoral responses in SPF (specific-pathogen-free) chickens, and provided protective immunity. PC-Lip (phosphatidylcholine-liposome) elicited significant mucosal secretary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels (p <0.05) in tracheal lavage fluid and serum IgG levels (p <0.05). In response to virulent viral challenge, birds treated with PBS (phosphate buffered saline) as control group died, whereas 80% of chickens which received PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, PS-Lip (phosphatidylserine-liposome), and PS-Lip-LPS survived. HAI titers were 1:2560 in the PS-Lip-LPS group and 1:1280 in the PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, and PS-Lip groups after two vaccinations. The results suggest that PC-Lip or PS-Lip might thus be suitable as a potential adjuvant for mucosal vaccination against NDV in chickens.