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Cross-Resistance in Fluridone-Resistant Hydrilla to Other Bleaching Herbicides

Puri, Atul, Haller, William T., Netherland, Michael D.
Weed science 2009 v.57 no.5 pp. 482-488
Hydrilla verticillata, aquatic weeds, noxious weeds, fluridone, herbicide-resistant weeds, cross resistance, weed control, topramezone, norflurazon, mesotrione, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, biotypes, plant pigments, chemical constituents of plants, application rate
The development of fluridone resistance by hydrilla has significantly impacted hydrilla management, and research is ongoing to develop alternate herbicides for effective hydrilla control. We determined the potential cross-resistance in fluridone-resistant hydrilla to other bleaching herbicides norflurazon, mesotrione, and topramezone-methyl. Phytoene, ββ-carotene, and chlorophyll contents as a function of hydrilla biotype and herbicide treatment were evaluated. Hydrilla shoot tips were collected from fluridone-susceptible (S) and -resistant (R) biotypes and exposed to 5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 µµg L⁻⁻¹ of herbicide. The susceptible biotype showed an increase in phytoene and a decrease in ββ-carotene and chlorophyll contents when treated with 5 µµg L⁻⁻¹ fluridone, whereas higher doses of fluridone were required to affect these pigments in the resistant biotype. There was no difference in response by S and R biotypes to mesotrione and topramezone-methyl, with both biotypes showing significant affects on pigment contents at 5 µµg L⁻⁻¹. Higher doses of norflurazon were required to affect these pigments in the R compared to the S biotype. The S biotype had EC₅₀ values of 11.7, 12.2, and 4.7 µµg L⁻⁻¹, whereas the R biotype had EC₅₀ values of 56.6, 41.1, and 41.7 µµg L⁻⁻¹ fluridone for phytoene, ββ-carotene, and chlorophyll contents, respectively. There was no difference in EC₅₀ for phytoene, ββ-carotene, and chlorophyll values between the hydrilla biotypes for mesotrione and topramezone-methyl herbicides. In fluridone-susceptible and -resistant hydrilla biotypes, EC₅₀ values for phytoene, ββ-carotene, and chlorophyll were 12.4 to 11.8, 10.2 to 13.2, and 3.1 to 4.6 µµg L⁻⁻¹ mesotrione and 12.6 to 13.5, 13.3 to 11.9, and 4.6 to 5.7 µµg L⁻⁻¹ topramezone-methyl, respectively. For norflurazon, S and R biotypes had EC₅₀ values of 33.1, 45.4, and 40.6 µµg L⁻⁻¹ and 84.6, 81.0, and 92.7 µµg L⁻⁻¹ for phytoene, ββ-carotene, and chlorophyll, respectively. These studies confirmed negative cross-resistance of fluridone-resistant hydrilla to mesotrione and topramezone-methyl and a positive cross-resistance to norflurazon.Nomenclature: Fluridone; mesotrione; norflurazon; topramezone-methyl; hydrilla, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle HYLLI.