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Effect of allelochemicals sustained-release microspheres on the ingestion, incorporation, and digestion abilities of Daphnia magna Straus
- Benhang Li, Yijun Yin, Xiaohong Zhou, Li Feng, Yongze Liu, Ziwen Du, Yajun Tian, Liqiu Zhang
- Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2023 v.124 pp. 205-214
- Daphnia magna, acute toxicity, adults, allelochemicals, death, digestion, ingestion, invertebrates, microorganisms, microparticles, mortality, neonates, stable isotopes, China
- Allelochemicals sustained-release microspheres (ACs-SMs) exhibited great inhibition effect on algae, however, few studies have focused on ACs-SMs toxicity on invertebrate. In this study, the effects of single high-concentration ACs (15 mg/L, SH-ACs), repeated low-concentration ACs (3 × 5 mg/L, RL-ACs) and ACs-SMs containing 15 mg/L ACs exposure on the ingestion, incorporation, and digestion of Daphnia magna Straus (DS) were investigated by stable isotope ¹⁵N labeling method. Meanwhile, the diversity and abundance of microflora in DS guts were determined by 16S rRNA genes and cloning methods. The results showed that SH-ACs exposure caused 50% and 33.3% death rates for newborn and adult DS, while RL-ACs exposure caused 10% death rate for newborn DS and no obvious effect on the activity of adult DS. And ACs-SMs exposure did not diminish the motility of both newborn and adult DS, indicating the lower acute toxicity of ACs-SMs. Furthermore, SH-ACs inhibited the ingestion (-6.45%), incorporation (-47.1%) and digestion (-53.8%) abilities of DS and reduced the microbial abundance (-27.7%) in DS guts. Compared with SH-ACs, RL-ACs showed relatively low impact on the ingestion (-3.23%), incorporation (-5.89%) and digestion (-23.9%) abilities of DS. Interestingly, ACs-SMs enhanced the ingestion (+9.68%), incorporation (+52.9%) and digestion (+51.3%) abilities of DS and increased the microbial abundance (+10.7%) in DS guts. Overall ACs and ACs-SMs reduced the diversity of microflora in DS guts. In conclusion, ACs-SMs can release ACs sustainably and prolong the sustained release time, which not only effectively reduce the toxicity of ACs, but also had positive effects on DS.